Key numbers ? 2020 Q1 & Q2

Michigan State with highest Q2 Black unemployment rate (35.5%), up from 7% in Q1
Nevada State with highest Q2 Hispanic unemployment rate (30.1%), up from 4.6% in Q1
Hawaii State with highest Q2 unemployment rate for whites (19.1%) and Asians (21.9%), up from 3.2% and 2.4% in Q1
Utah & Idaho States with highest unemployment rates for Blacks and Hispanics relative to whites in Q2 (2.3-to-1 and 2.2-to-1 respectively)

2020 Q1 & Q2 ? Updated August 2020

Latest data: Black–white and Hispanic–white gaps persist as states record historic unemployment rates in the second quarter

By Jhacova Williams

EPI analyzes state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity, and racial/ethnic unemployment rate gaps, on a quarterly basis to generate a sample size large enough to create reliable estimates of unemployment rates by race and ethnicity at the state level. We report estimates only for states for which the sample size of these subgroups is large enough to create an accurate estimate. For this reason, the number of states included in our maps and data tables varies based on the analysis performed.

Our analysis of first and second quarter 2020 data finds that Black, white, and Hispanic unemployment gaps remained the same in most states in the first quarter, and that unemployment rates reached historic levels in the second quarter.

First quarter state unemployment rates, trends, and ratios

For the first quarter of 2020, we analyze—for every state where data are available—unemployment rates by race and ethnicity, the change in the unemployment rates since the fourth quarter of 2007 (the quarter preceding the onset of the Great Recession), and ratios of African American and Hispanic unemployment rates to white unemployment rates.

Highlights

A snapshot of national and state unemployment in March and April

In March 2020, the national unemployment rate was 3.8%, up slightly from the 3.5% at the end of the fourth quarter of 2019.2 State unemployment rates in March ranged from 2.2% in North Dakota to 5.8% in Louisiana.3 According to a previous EPI analysis of unemployment by state that analyzes the economic effect of the coronavirus pandemic, in April 2020, 43 states and the District of Columbia saw their unemployment rates increase to record high levels.4

State-by-state data

Following are EPI’s detailed state-by-state breakdown of estimated unemployment rates by race and ethnicity (see interactive map below), changes in the rates since the fourth quarter of 2007 (Table 1), and racial/ethnic unemployment rate gaps for the first quarter of 2020 (three-month averages) (Table 2).

Interactive Map

State unemployment rates, by race/ethnicity and overall, 2020Q1

State All White Black Hispanic Asian
Alabama 3.0% 2.9% 3.6% NA NA
Alaska 5.8% 3.8% NA NA NA
Arizona 4.8% 3.9% NA 4.6% NA
Arkansas 3.9% 3.7% 5.1% 2.6% NA
California 4.4% 3.4% 6.0% 5.4% 3.0%
Colorado 3.2% 2.8% NA 4.2% NA
Connecticut 3.7% 3.4% NA 4.1% NA
Delaware 4.3% 3.3% 8.0% NA NA
Washington D.C. 5.4% 2.0% 11.3% NA NA
Florida 3.3% 2.7% 6.4% 2.9% 1.4%
Georgia 3.5% 2.2% 5.3% 3.3% NA
Hawaii 2.7% 3.2% NA NA 2.4%
Idaho 2.7% 2.5% NA 3.5% NA
Illinois 3.8% 3.1% 6.7% 5.2% 1.5%
Indiana 3.1% 2.8% NA NA NA
Iowa 3.1% 2.4% NA NA NA
Kansas 3.1% 2.9% NA 3.7% NA
Kentucky 4.8% 4.7% NA NA NA
Louisiana 5.8% 3.6% 10.0% NA NA
Maine 3.2% 2.8% NA NA NA
Maryland 3.3% 2.3% 6.1% NA NA
Massachusetts 2.8% 2.7% 3.4% 3.9% 1.5%
Michigan 3.8% 3.2% 7.0% NA NA
Minnesota 3.1% 2.9% NA NA NA
Mississippi 5.4% 3.4% 9.1% NA NA
Missouri 3.8% 3.5% 6.2% NA NA
Montana 3.5% 3.3% NA NA NA
Nebraska 3.3% 2.6% NA NA NA
Nevada 4.5% 4.1% NA 4.6% 3.2%
New Hampshire 2.6% 2.4% NA NA NA
New Jersey 3.8% 2.6% 6.9% 4.6% 4.5%
New Mexico 5.2% 3.8% NA 5.4% NA
New York 4.0% 3.4% 5.5% 5.6% 2.2%
North Carolina 3.9% 2.9% 5.6% 6.6% NA
North Dakota 2.2% 1.9% NA NA NA
Ohio 4.6% 3.3% 9.0% NA NA
Oklahoma 3.2% 2.6% NA 3.4% NA
Oregon 3.3% 3.6% NA 3.0% NA
Pennsylvania 5.1% 4.0% 10.2% 8.3% NA
Rhode Island 3.8% 3.1% NA NA NA
South Carolina 2.5% 1.9% 3.8% NA NA
South Dakota 3.3% 1.7% NA NA NA
Tennessee 3.4% 2.4% 7.3% NA NA
Texas 3.9% 2.8% 5.7% 4.8% 2.6%
Utah 2.9% 2.7% NA 2.7% NA
Vermont 2.7% 2.7% NA NA NA
Virginia 2.9% 2.3% 4.7% 3.6% 2.4%
Washington 4.3% 3.5% NA 6.8% 3.4%
West Virginia 5.3% 5.0% NA NA NA
Wisconsin 3.5% 2.5% NA NA NA
Wyoming 3.7% 2.9% NA NA NA

 

Note: The map reports unemployment rates only for state subgroups with sample sizes large enough to create accurate estimates.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data

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Trends among white workers

In the first quarter of 2020, the white unemployment rate was lowest in South Dakota (1.7%) and highest in West Virginia (5.0%), as shown in the interactive map and underlying data table, which present state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity.

Table 1 displays changes in state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity from the fourth quarter of 2007—the last quarter before the Great Recession—to the first quarter of 2020. The white unemployment rate remained most elevated above its pre–Great Recession level in Louisiana, at 1.2 percentage point higher than in the fourth quarter of 2007. The white unemployment rate was at or below its pre–Great Recession level in 43 states. The largest declines in white unemployment since the end of 2007 occurred in Michigan (down 2.9 percentage points), Rhode Island (down 2.2 percentage points), Tennessee (down 2.1 percentage points), and Maine and Massachusetts (down 2.0 percentage points). The white unemployment rate was above but within 0.5 percentage points of its pre–Great Recession level in Arizona, Delaware, the District of Columbia, New Mexico, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming.

Table 1

Change in state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity from 2007Q4 to 2020Q1 (percentage points)

White Black Hispanic Asian
United States -0.9 -2.3 -1.1 -0.6
Alabama -0.7 -2.7 NA NA
Alaska -0.8 NA NA NA
Arizona 0.5 NA -1.3 NA
Arkansas -1.0 -3.8 NA NA
California -1.4 -4.1 -1.7 -1.9
Colorado -0.7 NA -1.0 NA
Connecticut -0.1 NA -4.1 NA
Delaware 0.4 3.0 NA NA
District of Columbia 0.3 1.4 NA NA
Florida -1.3 0.0 -2.9 NA
Georgia -1.1 -2.9 -3.8 NA
Hawaii -0.9 NA NA -0.1
Idaho -0.5 NA NA NA
Illinois -1.3 -5.6 -0.5 -1.9
Indiana -1.5 NA NA NA
Iowa -1.0 NA NA NA
Kansas -0.8 NA NA NA
Kentucky -0.4 NA NA NA
Louisiana 1.2 1.3 NA NA
Maine -2.0 NA NA NA
Maryland -0.5 0.4 NA NA
Massachusetts -2.0 NA NA NA
Michigan -2.9 -8.5 NA NA
Minnesota -1.2 NA NA NA
Mississippi -0.3 -1.2 NA NA
Missouri -1.0 -5.6 NA NA
Montana -0.5 NA NA NA
Nebraska 0.0 NA NA NA
Nevada -0.1 NA -1.9 0.3
New Hampshire -1.1 NA NA NA
New Jersey -1.3 -1.5 -0.6 2.2
New Mexico 0.5 NA 0.8 NA
New York -0.3 -2.5 -1.4 -1.1
North Carolina -1.2 -2.7 0.1 NA
North Dakota -0.1 NA NA NA
Ohio -1.2 -4.6 NA NA
Oklahoma -0.4 NA NA NA
Oregon -1.8 NA NA NA
Pennsylvania -0.2 3.0 NA NA
Rhode Island -2.2 NA NA NA
South Carolina -1.8 -7.3 NA NA
South Dakota -0.3 NA NA NA
Tennessee -2.1 -2.2 NA NA
Texas -0.6 -2.2 0.4 -0.3
Utah 0.2 NA -1.2 NA
Vermont -1.5 NA NA NA
Virginia -0.7 -0.6 -0.1 NA
Washington -1.4 NA 1.0 -0.4
West Virginia 0.2 NA NA NA
Wisconsin -1.7 NA NA NA
Wyoming 0.4 NA NA NA

Note: The table reports data only for state subgroups with sample sizes large enough to create accurate estimates.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

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Trends among African American workers

African American unemployment rate estimates are available for 22 states and for the District of Columbia. Among states, the unemployment rate for African Americans was lowest in Massachusetts (3.4%) and Alabama (3.6%), and highest in Pennsylvania (10.2%); in the District of Columbia, it was 11.3%. The District of Columbia also had the highest Black unemployment rate during the previous 14 quarters.

In the first quarter of 2020, of the 22 states with African American unemployment rate estimates (excluding D.C.), all but two (Pennsylvania and Louisiana) had Black unemployment rates below 10%; in 12 of these states, the rate was at or below the first-quarter national average for African Americans (6.3%).

As shown in Table 2, which displays the Black–white and Hispanic–white unemployment rate ratios in the first quarter of 2020, Alabama and Massachusetts had the smallest Black–white rate gaps of the 22 states and the District of Columbia. Black unemployment was 1.2 times the white unemployment rate in Alabama and 1.3 times the white unemployment rate in Massachusetts. Meanwhile, the largest gap was in the District of Columbia, where the Black unemployment rate was 5.6 times the white rate. The next highest unemployment ratios were in Tennessee (3.0-to-1), Louisiana (2.8-to-1), and Ohio and Mississippi (2.7-to-1 each).

The Black unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2020 was at or below its pre-Great Recession level in 16 states: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. (Data on the change in Black unemployment over this period are available for 21 states and for the District of Columbia.)

Table 2

Black–white and Hispanic–white state unemployment rate ratios, 2020Q1

State Black–white ratio Hispanic–white ratio
United States 2.1 1.6
Alabama 1.2 NA
Alaska NA NA
Arizona NA 1.2
Arkansas 1.4 0.7
California 1.8 1.6
Colorado NA 1.5
Connecticut NA 1.2
Delaware 2.4 NA
District of Columbia 5.6 NA
Florida 2.4 1.1
Georgia 2.4 1.5
Hawaii NA NA
Idaho NA 1.4
Illinois 2.2 1.7
Indiana NA NA
Iowa NA NA
Kansas NA 1.3
Kentucky NA NA
Louisiana 2.8 NA
Maine NA NA
Maryland 2.6 NA
Massachusetts 1.3 1.5
Michigan 2.2 NA
Minnesota NA NA
Mississippi 2.7 NA
Missouri 1.8 NA
Montana NA NA
Nebraska NA NA
Nevada NA 1.1
New Hampshire NA NA
New Jersey 2.6 1.7
New Mexico NA 1.4
New York 1.6 1.6
North Carolina 2.0 2.3
North Dakota NA NA
Ohio 2.7 NA
Oklahoma NA 1.3
Oregon NA 0.8
Pennsylvania 2.5 2.0
Rhode Island NA NA
South Carolina 1.9 NA
South Dakota NA NA
Tennessee 3.0 NA
Texas 2.0 1.7
Utah NA 1.0
Vermont NA NA
Virginia 2.0 1.6
Washington NA 2.0
West Virginia NA NA
Wisconsin NA NA
Wyoming NA NA

Note: The table reports data only for state subgroups with sample sizes large enough to create accurate estimates.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

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Trends among Hispanic workers

Hispanic unemployment rate estimates are available for 23 states and data on the change in Hispanic unemployment rates since the fourth quarter of 2007 are available for 16 states. In the first quarter of 2020, among states, the Hispanic unemployment rate was highest in Pennsylvania (8.3%), Washington (6.8%), North Carolina (6.6%), and New York (5.6%). The rate was lowest in Arkansas (2.6%), Utah (2.7%), and Florida (2.9%)

The Hispanic unemployment rate was below its pre–Great Recession level in 12 states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Utah, and Virginia. The Hispanic unemployment rate was most elevated above its pre–Great Recession level in Washington (1.0 percentage points); it declined most in Connecticut (down 4.1 percentage points), Georgia (down 3.8 percentage points), and Florida (down 2.9 percentage points).

The Hispanic unemployment rate was lower than the white unemployment rate in Arkansas (0.7-to-1) and Oregon (0.8-to-1). The ratio of Hispanic unemployment to white unemployment was highest in North Carolina (2.3-to-1) and in Pennsylvania (2.0-to-1).

Trends among Asian workers

Asian unemployment rate estimates are available for 11 states, and data on the change in Asian unemployment rates since the fourth quarter of 2007 are available for eight states. The Asian unemployment rate was lowest in Florida (1.4%) and highest in New Jersey (4.5%). The Asian unemployment rate was at or below its pre–Great Recession level in California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington. The Asian unemployment rate was above its pre–Great Recession level in Nevada (0.3 percentage points higher) and New Jersey (2.2 percentage points higher).

Second quarter state unemployment rates, trends, and ratios

For the second quarter of 2020, we analyze—for every state where data are available—unemployment rates by race and ethnicity (see map below), the change in the unemployment rates since the first quarter of 2020 (the quarter that ended with the initial negative effects of the coronavirus pandemic) (Table 3), and the ratios of African American and Hispanic unemployment rates to white unemployment rates (Table 4).

Unemployment rates hit historic highs

While we continued our economic expansion in the first quarter of 2020, we saw historic levels of unemployment rates in the second quarter.

In the second quarter of 2020, African American workers had the highest unemployment rate nationally, at 17.4%, following by Hispanic workers (at 16.9%), Asian workers (at 13.3%), and white workers (at 10.8%).5

These unemployment rates are shown in the interactive map and underlying data table, which present state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity in the second quarter of 2020.

Interactive Map

State unemployment rates, by race/ethnicity and overall, 2020Q2

State All White Black Hispanic Asian
Alabama 10.3% 8.6% 14.2% NA NA
Alaska 12.9% 10.2% NA NA NA
Arizona 10.8% 9.4% NA 11.2% NA
Arkansas 9.5% 8.7% 13.2% NA NA
California 15.9% 13.5% 18.3% 18.1% 14.2%
Colorado 11.0% 8.9% NA 16.4% NA
Connecticut 9.2% 8.9% NA NA NA
Delaware 14.4% 12.8% 17.9% NA NA
Washington D.C. 9.7% 4.0% 18.2% NA NA
Florida 12.6% 10.4% 17.5% 14.5% NA
Georgia 9.9% 7.5% 11.8% 12.4% NA
Hawaii 20.4% 19.1% NA NA 21.9%
Idaho 8.8% 7.6% NA 16.3% NA
Illinois 15.7% 13.0% 20.7% 23.0% 9.4%
Indiana 13.7% 12.2% NA NA NA
Iowa 9.7% 8.4% NA NA NA
Kansas 9.8% 9.2% NA NA NA
Kentucky 10.6% 10.3% NA NA NA
Louisiana 13.0% 9.7% 18.2% NA NA
Maine 8.8% 8.5% NA NA NA
Maryland 9.4% 6.6% 13.0% NA NA
Massachusetts 16.7% 14.1% NA 29.9% 17.5%
Michigan 20.0% 17.5% 35.5% NA NA
Minnesota 9.1% 8.1% NA NA NA
Mississippi 11.8% 9.7% 16.0% NA NA
Missouri 9.4% 9.1% 10.5% NA NA
Montana 9.3% 8.8% NA NA NA
Nebraska 6.9% 6.0% NA NA NA
Nevada 23.5% 17.8% NA 30.1% NA
New Hampshire 14.8% 13.6% NA NA NA
New Jersey 16.1% 13.0% 18.3% 23.3% 16.2%
New Mexico 9.8% 8.4% NA 10.0% NA
New York 15.2% 12.2% 18.3% 22.0% 16.2%
North Carolina 11.1% 9.8% 14.2% 15.2% NA
North Dakota 8.1% 7.4% NA NA NA
Ohio 14.1% 11.5% 23.4% NA NA
Oklahoma 11.3% 9.3% NA 12.9% NA
Oregon 13.5% 13.3% NA 14.2% NA
Pennsylvania 14.2% 12.2% 22.0% 19.7% NA
Rhode Island 15.6% 13.1% NA NA NA
South Carolina 11.3% 9.0% 17.0% NA NA
South Dakota 9.2% 6.4% NA NA NA
Tennessee 12.1% 10.3% 16.9% NA NA
Texas 11.7% 7.8% 18.0% 14.1% 12.3%
Utah 8.0% 7.8% NA 8.6% NA
Vermont 12.9% 12.1% NA NA NA
Virginia 9.5% 7.7% 11.6% 15.2% NA
Washington 13.7% 12.0% NA 17.6% 11.2%
West Virginia 13.1% 12.4% NA NA NA
Wisconsin 11.4% 9.9% NA NA NA
Wyoming 8.7% 7.9% NA NA NA

Note: The map reports unemployment rates only for state subgroups with sample sizes large enough to create accurate estimates.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

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Unemployment rates increased by more than 10 percentage points in many states

Table 3 displays changes in state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity from the first quarter of 2020—the quarter that ended with the onset of the coronavirus pandemic—to the second quarter of 2020.

Table 3

Change in state unemployment rates by race and ethnicity from 2020Q1 to 2020Q2 (percentage points)

State White Black Hispanic Asian
United States 7.8 11.1 12.1 10.4
Alabama 5.7 10.6 NA NA
Alaska 6.4 NA NA NA
Arizona 5.5 NA 6.6 NA
Arkansas 5.1 8.0 NA NA
California 10.2 12.3 12.7 11.2
Colorado 6.2 NA 12.2 NA
Connecticut 5.5 NA NA NA
Delaware 9.5 9.9 NA NA
District of Columbia 2.0 6.9 NA NA
Florida 7.8 11.1 11.7 NA
Georgia 5.3 6.6 9.1 NA
Hawaii 15.9 NA NA 19.4
Idaho 5.0 NA 12.8 NA
Illinois 10.0 14.0 17.8 7.9
Indiana 9.4 NA NA NA
Iowa 6.0 NA NA NA
Kansas 6.3 NA NA NA
Kentucky 5.6 NA NA NA
Louisiana 6.1 8.2 NA NA
Maine 5.7 NA NA NA
Maryland 4.3 6.9 NA NA
Massachusetts 11.4 NA 26.0 16.0
Michigan 14.3 28.5 NA NA
Minnesota 5.2 NA NA NA
Mississippi 6.3 6.9 NA NA
Missouri 5.6 4.3 NA NA
Montana 5.5 NA NA NA
Nebraska 3.4 NA NA NA
Nevada 13.8 NA 25.5 NA
New Hampshire 11.2 NA NA NA
New Jersey 10.4 11.4 18.7 11.8
New Mexico 4.6 NA 4.6 NA
New York 8.8 12.7 16.4 13.9
North Carolina 6.9 8.6 8.6 NA
North Dakota 5.5 NA NA NA
Ohio 8.2 14.4 NA NA
Oklahoma 6.7 NA 9.4 NA
Oregon 9.7 NA 11.2 NA
Pennsylvania 8.2 11.9 11.4 NA
Rhode Island 10.0 NA NA NA
South Carolina 7.1 13.2 NA NA
South Dakota 4.7 NA NA NA
Tennessee 7.8 9.6 NA NA
Texas 5.0 12.3 9.3 9.7
Utah 5.0 NA 6.0 NA
Vermont 9.4 NA NA NA
Virginia 5.4 6.9 11.6 NA
Washington 8.5 NA 10.7 7.8
West Virginia 7.5 NA NA NA
Wisconsin 7.3 NA NA NA
Wyoming 4.9 NA NA NA

Note: The table reports data only for state subgroups with sample sizes large enough to create accurate estimates.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

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Black and Hispanic unemployment rates in some states are twice as high as white rates

Table 4 displays the Black–white and Hispanic–white unemployment rate ratios in the second quarter of 2020. Missouri, California, Delaware, and New Jersey had the smallest Black–white rate gaps of the 21 states and of the District of Columbia. Black unemployment in Missouri was 1.2 times the white unemployment rate in that state, while in California, Delaware, and New Jersey the Black unemployment rate was 1.4 times the white unemployment rate. Meanwhile, the largest gap was in the District of Columbia, where the Black unemployment rate was 4.6 times the white rate. The next highest unemployment ratios were in Texas (2.3-to-1) and in Maryland, Michigan, and Ohio (all 2.0-to-1).

The Hispanic unemployment rate is above the the white unemployment rate in all 20 states for which data are available. The ratio of Hispanic unemployment to white unemployment was highest in Idaho (2.2-to-1) and in Massachusetts (2.1-to-1).

Table 4

Black–white and Hispanic–white state unemployment rate ratios, 2020Q2

Black–white ratio Hispanic–white ratio
United States 1.6 1.6
Alabama 1.6 NA
Alaska NA NA
Arizona NA 1.2
Arkansas 1.5 NA
California 1.4 1.3
Colorado NA 1.8
Connecticut NA NA
Delaware 1.4 NA
District of Columbia 4.6 NA
Florida 1.7 1.4
Georgia 1.6 1.7
Hawaii NA NA
Idaho NA 2.2
Illinois 1.6 1.8
Indiana NA NA
Iowa NA NA
Kansas NA NA
Kentucky NA NA
Louisiana 1.9 NA
Maine NA NA
Maryland 2.0 NA
Massachusetts NA 2.1
Michigan 2.0 NA
Minnesota NA NA
Mississippi 1.7 NA
Missouri 1.2 NA
Montana NA NA
Nebraska NA NA
Nevada NA 1.7
New Hampshire NA NA
New Jersey 1.4 1.8
New Mexico NA 1.2
New York 1.5 1.8
North Carolina 1.5 1.6
North Dakota NA NA
Ohio 2.0 NA
Oklahoma NA 1.4
Oregon NA 1.1
Pennsylvania 1.8 1.6
Rhode Island NA NA
South Carolina 1.9 NA
South Dakota NA NA
Tennessee 1.6 NA
Texas 2.3 1.8
Utah NA 1.1
Vermont NA NA
Virginia 1.5 2.0
Washington NA 1.5
West Virginia NA NA
Wisconsin NA NA
Wyoming NA NA

Note: The table reports data only for state subgroups with sample sizes large enough to create accurate estimates.

Source: EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data.

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Methodology

The unemployment rate estimates in this report are based on the Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The overall state unemployment rate is taken directly from the LAUS. CPS six-month ratios are applied to LAUS data to calculate the rates by race and ethnicity. For each state subgroup, we calculate the unemployment rate using the past six months of CPS data. We then find the ratio of this subgroup rate to the state unemployment rate using the same period of CPS data. This gives us an estimate of how the subgroup compares with the state overall.

While this methodology allows us to calculate unemployment-rate estimates at the state level by race and ethnicity by quarter, it is less precise at the national level than simply using the CPS. Thus, the national-level estimates may differ from direct CPS estimates.

In many states, the sample sizes of particular subgroups are not large enough to create accurate estimates of their unemployment rates. We report data only for groups that had, on average, a sample size of at least 700 in the labor force for each six-month period.

Endnotes

1. EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data. Figures are three-month averages. All other data points in the bullets in this section are from the maps and tables in this report.

2. Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey: Unemployment Rate,” Series Id. LNS14000000 [online data table], U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed August 10, 2020.

3. State Employment and Unemployment—March 2020,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed August 10, 2020.

4. State Jobs and Unemployment” (economic indicators), Economic Policy Institute, April 2020.

5. EPI analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) data and Current Population Survey (CPS) data. Figures are three-month averages.

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